Antimicrobial Resistance and COVID-19

By Linya Thng The highly infectious coronavirus illness 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and is a health concern throughout the world. COVID-19 emerged as a global pandemic responsible for over 2.9 million deaths – the highest mortality rate since the era of the 1918 Influenza pandemic (Hassan etContinue reading “Antimicrobial Resistance and COVID-19”

The battle of the ages: Cancer vs Virus

By Jessie Ng Chi Wai An oncolytic virus is a type of replicable virus which infects and kills cancer cells. Oncolytic virus therapy is now highly regarded among cancer treatments, as it has shown excellent capability in stimulating an immune response against cancer without causing harm to other healthy tissues.          Reports of viral infectionsContinue reading “The battle of the ages: Cancer vs Virus”

Role of gut microbiota in inflammatory diseases: IBD and obesity

By Kai Yee Eng To find an area with the greatest population of microorganisms covered in or on our body, we only need look to our gut. Our gut microbiota comprises bacteria, archaea, virus and other microorganisms. Unsurprisingly, none can find another person with the same gut microbiota composition. Given gut microbiota is unique inContinue reading “Role of gut microbiota in inflammatory diseases: IBD and obesity”

The Gut Microbiome in Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Implications for Treatment

By Malini Williams Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic autoinflammatory disease affecting the gastrointestinal tract. The two most common forms of IBD are ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease. Ulcerative colitis is characterized by continuous inflammation in the colon which is mostly confined to the mucosa and sub-mucosa. In contrast, Crohn’s disease can affect anyContinue reading “The Gut Microbiome in Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Implications for Treatment”

Bowel Cancer and the Microbiome

By Daniella Gimbosh Cancer is an extremely broad category of diseases caused by the uncontrollable growth of dividing cells, and novel treatment therapies are constantly being investigated by scientists around the world. One of these novel areas of research focuses on the microbiome – a field that is rapidly gaining momentum for its complexity andContinue reading “Bowel Cancer and the Microbiome”

What lives on our skin? – the skin microbiome

By Ashley Lai We all know that skin is an important barrier of the immune system, but do we realise it is actually the largest epithelial interaction site with microbes – at least 30m2 when taking into account all the appendage structures. (Gallo, 2017) The different microenvironments of the skin such as pH and moistureContinue reading “What lives on our skin? – the skin microbiome”

Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and small activating RNA (saRNAs) in cancer therapy

By Chuyue Zhang Cancer is one of the most prevalent diseases and the second leading cause of death in the world (Chalbatani et al.,2019). Recently, using RNA interference (RNAi) and RNA activation (RNAa) for cancer treatment is in the research spotlight. RNAi refers to the sequence-specific gene silencing by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) which is homologous toContinue reading “Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and small activating RNA (saRNAs) in cancer therapy”

Circadian Rhythm and Viral Infection : A Battle Around the Clock

By Lingyi Wang  The Earth’s self-rotation around its axis generates rhythmic day/night cycles and a circadian rhythm of 24 hours, forming the concept of a ‘day’. Virtually all organisms have evolved endogenous timekeeping systems, namely the circadian clock, to help adapt to this day/night oscillation by coordinating biological processes and behaviours in a daily rhythmicContinue reading “Circadian Rhythm and Viral Infection : A Battle Around the Clock”

The poisonous bacteria: Pseudomonas aeruginosa

By Nitara Wijayatilake Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen, taking advantage of existing infections to cause extreme detriment to immune-suppressed individuals. With respect to its classification, it is a gram-negative alpha-proteobacteria and 10% of its genome is made up of regulatory genes, influencing its highly adaptable nature. This bacteria has a wide host range but researchContinue reading “The poisonous bacteria: Pseudomonas aeruginosa”

How the gut microbiota affects neurological disorders: An Insight into Parkinson’s Disease

By Yuki Agarwala Our gut is home to approximately 100 trillion bacteria, both good and bad, which are collectively known as the gut microbiota (Can gut bacteria, 2016). This represents 10 times the number of cells in the human body, and a stunning 3 million genes. Interestingly, only around 1~3% of these bacteria are commonContinue reading “How the gut microbiota affects neurological disorders: An Insight into Parkinson’s Disease”