How are drugs broken down inside our bodies?

By Yuchen Lin When we are ill, we take various kinds of drugs to fight against the disease. But after drugs exert their functions, how do our bodies get rid of them? Lots of drugs are toxic to most of the cells in our body. If we do not detoxify them after they’ve done theirContinue reading “How are drugs broken down inside our bodies?”

Using immune checkpoint inhibitors to treat cancer

By Cristina Riquelme Vano There are more than a hundred sixty-six thousand cancer deaths in the UK every year according to Cancer Research UK (Cancer Statistics for the UK. 2021). One of the reasons why cancer is so hard to tackle is that cancer cells are very similar to normal cells. Only a few geneticContinue reading “Using immune checkpoint inhibitors to treat cancer”

The future of vaccination

By Sabino Méndez Pastor In 1796, Edward Jenner demonstrated that cowpox infection gave long term protection against the smallpox virus (Maruggi et al., 2019). Since then, vaccines have become one of the most effective public health tools ever developed by saving an estimate of 2.5 million lives each year from diseases like diphtheria, tetanus andContinue reading “The future of vaccination”

Antibody-drug conjugates in cancer therapy

By Helen Luojia Zhang Traditional chemotherapy and radiotherapy destroy many types of healthy cells in addition to targeted cancer cells, leading to serious side effects. Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) are a class of drug designed as a targeted therapy that specifically deliver the cytotoxic payload to cells that express the target antigen of interest (Khongorzul etContinue reading “Antibody-drug conjugates in cancer therapy”

Cancer Stem Cells – Can we combat therapy resistance by targeting their metabolism?

By Hung-Hsi Chen Scientific advancement has allowed for scientists to understand cancer, and to come up with potential therapies that would combat the disease. Cancer stem cells and its metabolism is becoming a popular area of study, with cancer stem cell being one of the major factors contributing to therapy resistance, and cancer metabolism beingContinue reading “Cancer Stem Cells – Can we combat therapy resistance by targeting their metabolism?”

Essential Oils: Treatment or Trend?

By Sophya Yeoh In recent years, alternative medicine has been gaining widespread popularity as a plethora of wellness blogs and magazines praises its effectiveness. One of the most prominent forms of alternative medicine is the use of essential oils for aromatherapy and the claims about their ‘magical’ properties range from bringing mild stress relief toContinue reading “Essential Oils: Treatment or Trend?”

Fighting cancer with RNA therapy

By Kai Yee Eng RNA has emerged as a new class of drug in the pharmaceutical industry in the 21st century. With the current pandemic, RNA as a vaccine has received more attention than any time in history. First discovered in the 1960s, the role of messenger RNA to translate codons into proteins highlights itsContinue reading “Fighting cancer with RNA therapy”

ABC Transporters and Cancer Drug Resistance

By Jessica Lu A major problem in the treatment of cancer is that cancer cells can acquire resistance to anticancer drugs. This resistance could be specific to the drug used, but an especially difficult problem is the development of multidrug resistance (MDR). MDR occurs when cancer cells develop resistance to various structurally and functionally differentContinue reading “ABC Transporters and Cancer Drug Resistance”

“Beauty” supplements: Hope or hype?

By Shahnia Surendran Over the past decade, there has been an influx of pills, capsules and even “dusts” into the health industry promising miraculous results, feeding into the old adage that beauty simply isn’t skin deep. The market is oversaturated with these “nutricosmetics”, and ads for new wellness supplements are everywhere – you probably can’tContinue reading ““Beauty” supplements: Hope or hype?”

Altered Metabolism in Cancer via PI3K/Akt pathway

By Hung-Hsi Chen Altered metabolism is one of the emerging hallmarks of cancer. The Warburg effect in cancer cells explains their ability to undergo glycolysis even under aerobic conditions to meet the energy demand. However, recent studies have been focusing on the reprogramming of fatty acid metabolism in cancer cells, and one of the mostContinue reading “Altered Metabolism in Cancer via PI3K/Akt pathway”